Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace

Rare_Vintage_S_SARAH_DICKENS_Sterling_Silver_Turquoise_Coral_Pendant_Necklace_01_wsrs
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace

Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace
End-to-end length of necklace is approx. The outer pendants are each 1 3/8 long. Moving inward, the next pendants are each 1 1/2 long. The center pendant is 1 5/8 long. For other measurements, see photos with ruler and dime. Dickens on the back of one of the pendants. This necklace has been tested with JSP Testing Solution, and the metal is guaranteed to be solid sterling silver. Total weight is 34.9 grams. Read the Condition Description above. Thanks for looking, and have a nice day! This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Ethnic, Regional & Tribal\Necklaces & Pendants”. The seller is “treasureville” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Country of Origin: U.S.A.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Department: Women
  • Style: Choker
  • Material: Coral
  • Modified Item: No
  • Designs: Etched, Etching, Leaf, Leaves, Beads
  • Ethnic Origin: Southwest Southwestern Western Tribal Indian
  • Artisan: Sarah Dickens
  • Jewelry Type: Choker Necklaces
  • Type: Necklace
  • Secondary Stone: Coral
  • Item Length: 16 1/2\
  • Metal Purity: 925 Parts Per 1000
  • Signed: Yes
  • Main Stone: Green Turquoise
  • Brand: Native American
  • Metal: Sterling Silver
  • Tribal Affiliation: Navajo
  • Ethnic & Regional Style: Native American
  • Main Stone Shape: Oval

Rare Vintage S. SARAH DICKENS Sterling Silver Turquoise Coral Pendant Necklace

RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon

RARE_Native_American_Indian_Choctaw_New_Testament_Bible_1858_owned_by_Mormon_01_wfpr
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon

RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon
Translated into the Choctaw Language. Owned by Known RLDS Mormon – See below. For offer, a very rare book! Fresh from an private estate collection in Oklahoma – never offered on the market until now! Vintage, Old, Original, Antique – NOT a Reproduction – Guaranteed! Bailey (John William Alexander Bailey), Mormon author and RLDS Seventy Leader in Salt Lake City in 1930s-1940s. Signed twice by him. His daughter was the well-known Mormon Pauline Bailey Hancock. Also has embossed name of Dr. Phillip A Schaffranck / Schaffranek on inside front board. The New Testament of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ : translated into the Choctaw language = Pin chitokaka pi okchalinchi Chisvs Klaist in testament himona, chahta anumpa atoshowa hoke. New York : American Bible Society, 1858. Title in English and Choctaw; text in Choctaw. 18 pages ; 18 cm octavo. In good to very good condition. Spine label partially chipped, wear to leather. Light age toning / foxing to title page and other pages. Most are quite good. Rear hinge starting to crack. If you collect 19th century Civil War era imprints, Christian religion, etc. This is a nice one for your bibliophile library or paper / ephemera collection. Bailey, who led the RLDS branch in Salt Lake City in the 1930s and 1940s. Daughter Pauline [Hancock] was a leader of the Lukite schismatic group. Pauline Bailey Hancock (1903 – October 19, 1962) was the founder of the Church of Christ (Hancock) in Independence, Missouri in 1946, and was the first woman to found and lead a denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement. [1] A former member of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and then later the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), Hancock was excommunicated from the Temple Lot church in 1935, [1] due to differences between her view of the Godhead and theirs. She later claimed a vision of Jesus Christ, who she claimed had told her to “go and teach, ” leading her to found her own church in 1946. She would lead this church until her death in 1962. Early life and Latter Day Saint heritage. Pauline Bailey was a member of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now called the Community of Christ), whose father had been a minister of that denomination in Salt Lake City, Utah. She moved to Independence, Missouri in 1923 after marrying Silas Hancock. [2] During the Supreme Directional Control controversy of the 1920s, she opposed President Frederick M. Smith’s attempt to take “supreme directional control” over the RLDS church; she later transferred her membership to the Church of Christ (Temple Lot). [3] In 1935, following the excommunication of her friend Apostle Samuel Wood of the Temple Lot church (who was expelled for believing in a modalistic view of the Godhead, a view Hancock supported), Hancock resigned from that organization. Hancock later claimed to have had a vision in which God told her to go and teach others. Her account of this vision is as follows. I was reading in our living room, when all of a sudden I saw a marvelous vision. It seemed that I was taken to Jerusalem and I saw a man seated upon what looked like a stool. All around and about him, men were mocking, bowing and making fun of this individual…. I continued to watch as he was condemned to death and a crown of thorns was placed on his head…. I knew that there was nothing good in me except God had put it there…. I knew I had to have this Jesus or die…. I fell upon my knees and prayed to God through Jesus and His shed blood, to be forgiven of my sins…. When my prayer was finished, God baptized me with His own spirit and my soul was on fire with love towards God and mankind – I became a new creature… I answered Him that I couldn’t do that and He said,’I will be with you. He said,’I wasn’t a woman and they didn’t receive me – go teach and I’ll be with you. Blessed by the name of God. Yes, He calls women. Hancock subsequently founded her own organization to propagate her teachings and visions, which included one of Jesus being crucified that led her to believe she had become “a new creature”. Hancock’s organization rejected the Doctrine and Covenants of their parent church, as well as the Pearl of Great Price used by the LDS Church, retaining only the King James Bible and the Book of Mormon. She adopted a modalistic view of God, insisting that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were merely manifestation of the same, one God. [5] The organization bought property in Independence and built a submerged sanctuary that became locally known as the “basement church” because most of it was underground. Hancock exercised functions normally reserved solely to men during this time in Latter Day Saint history, such as performing baptisms and administering other ordinances, as well as preaching. She did not claim any formal title, but remained the undisputed leader of her church from its founding until the time of her death. Hancock died in 1962, still accepting the Book of Mormon as a valid work of scripture. However, following her death members of her church, including Jerald and Sandra Tanner, began to question the authenticity of the Book of Mormon, which led to Hancock’s church rejecting it in 1973. Her church continued to function for a time strictly as a Protestant denomination, but later chose to dissolve itself in 1984, after which its members mostly joined with various Evangelical Protestant churches. The Church of Christ, informally referred to as the Church of Christ (Hancock), the Basement Church, the Church of Christ (Lukeite) and the Church of Christ (Bible and Book of Mormon Teaching), was a sect of the Latter Day Saint movement founded in Independence, Missouri in 1946 by Pauline Hancock. [1] This church, which became defunct in 1984, bears the distinction of being the first Latter Day Saint sect to be founded by a woman. Among its members were Jerald and Sandra Tanner, who later became well-known opponents of the Latter Day Saint movement with their “Utah Lighthouse Ministry”. The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith-Rigdon movement)[1] is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian Restorationist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s. Collectively, these churches have over 16 million members, [2] although about 98% belong to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The predominant theology of the churches in the movement is Mormonism, which sees itself as restoring the early Christian church with additional revelations. A minority of Latter Day Saint adherents, such as members of Community of Christ, have been influenced by Protestant theology while maintaining certain distinctive beliefs and practices including continuing revelation, an open canon of scripture and building temples. Other groups include the Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, which supports lineal succession of leadership from Smith’s descendants, and the more controversial Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, which defends the practice of polygamy. The Community of Christ, known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS), is an American-based international church, [2] and is the second-largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement. The church reports 250,000 members in 1,100 congregations in 59 countries. [1] The church traces its origins to Joseph Smith’s establishment of the Church of Christ on April 6, 1830. [3] A group of members including his eldest son Joseph Smith III formally established the current church on April 6, 1860[4] in the aftermath of the 1844 death of Joseph Smith. Although Community of Christ is a Restorationist faith expression, various practices and beliefs are congruent with mainline Protestant Christianity. While it generally rejects the term Mormon to describe its members, the church abides by a number of theological distinctions unique to Mormonism, including but not limited to: prophetic revelation, a priesthood polity, the use of the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants as scripture, belief in the cause of Zion, the building of temples, and an interpretation of the Word of Wisdom. [5][6][7][8][9] In many respects, the church differs from the larger Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and most other Latter Day Saint denominations in its religious liberalism, belief in the traditional conception of the trinity (as opposed to a godhead of three separate and distinct beings), and rejection of exaltation and the plan of salvation. Salvation is considered a personal matter and not subject to dogma, but salvation by grace alone is emphasized. The church considers itself to be non-creedal and accepts people with a wide range of beliefs. Church teachings emphasize that “all are called” as “persons of worth” to “share the peace of Christ”. Community of Christ worship follows a free-form worship placing more of the foundation on scripture based on the Revised Common Lectionary. [10] From its headquarters in Independence, Missouri, the church offers a special focus on evangelism, peace and justice ministries, spirituality and wholeness, youth ministries and outreach ministries. The Community of Christ Temple in Independence, Missouri, USA. Main article: History of the Community of Christ. Formerly known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the Community of Christ regards itself as the true embodiment of the original church organized in 1830 by Joseph Smith, and it regards Joseph Smith III, the eldest surviving son of Smith, to have been his legitimate successor. The church was “legally organized on April 6, 1830, in Fayette, New York”. [12] The formal reorganization occurred on April 6, 1860, in Amboy, Illinois, as the “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints”, adding the word Reorganized to the church name in 1872. The church was founded based on a pattern of lineal succession through Joseph Smith of Prophet/presidents of the church, and as a mainstream alternative to the Strangites and the larger LDS church led by Brigham Young. It has long history as a Midwestern wing of the Latter Day Saint movement. It also had a long history of vocal opposition to plural marriage within the Latter Day Saint movement. Community of Christ considers the period from 1830 to 1844 to be a part of its early history and from 1844, the year of the death of the prophet-founder, to 1860, to be a period of disorganization. Since 1844, the doctrines and practices of the Community of Christ have evolved separately from the other denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. Changes in beliefs and practices. Since the 1960s, the church’s proselytizing outside North America have caused a re-assessment and gradual evolution of its traditional practices and beliefs. A revelation presented by Wallace B. Smith in 1984 decreed the construction of the Independence Temple and the ordination of women to the priesthood, after long-standing calls for both. [15][16] Following the retirement of Smith as Prophet-President of the Church, W. Grant McMurray was appointed as the new President. Although McMurray had been designated prophet-president by Smith, some members objected because he was the first church president who was not a direct descendant of Joseph Smith, which they considered to be a distinguishing trait from other denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. These changes, among others, were controversial among the membership, and they led to the formation of breakaway churches such as the Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; in 1994, former church historian Richard P. Howard estimated that 25,000 members had left to join such groups. [18] Between the mid-1960s and the late 1990s, there was a one-third decline in new baptisms in the United States along with a 50 percent drop in contributions in the decade before 1998. [19] The decline in membership was offset somewhat by an increase in converts outside the United States. [20] Growth continues to be driven by missions outside the US, particularly in the developing world and in Australia. In recent years, the church has attracted many ex-Mormons. The current vision and mission statements of the Community of Christ were initially adopted in 1996 by the leading quorums of the church’s leadership and reflect the peace and justice centered ministries of the denomination. In its mission statement, the church declares that [w]e proclaim Jesus Christ and promote communities of joy, hope, love and peace. ” The vision statement states that “We will become a worldwide church dedicated to the pursuit of peace, reconciliation, and healing of the spirit. Owned and operated by the Community of Christ. Temples and historical sites. The church owns two temples: the Kirtland Temple, dedicated in 1836 in Kirtland, Ohio (operated in part as a historic site as part of its educational ministry), and the relatively new Independence Temple, which serves as the church’s headquarters in Independence, Missouri. These structures are open to the public and are also used for education and gatherings. The church also owns and operates some Latter Day Saint historic sites in Lamoni, Iowa, and Plano and Nauvoo, Illinois. The Auditorium in Independence houses the Children’s Peace Pavilion and is the site of the major legislative assembly of the Community of Christ, which convenes during the World Conference. The church sponsors Graceland University, with a campus in Lamoni and another in Independence, where the School of Nursing and the Community of Christ Seminary are based. Church seal (including a child with the lamb and lion) on a set of doors to the Independence Temple. The Community of Christ states that it recognizes that “perception of truth is always qualified by human nature and experience” and it therefore has not adopted an official religious creed. Nevertheless, the Community of Christ offers a number of the commonly held beliefs of its members and leaders as the generally accepted beliefs of the church. [2] As Stephen M. Veazey, current president of the church states, Community of Christ is a church that provides light for the way as well as space for the personal faith journey. The Community of Christ generally accepts the doctrine of the Trinity and other commonly held Christian beliefs. The concept of Zion as both a present reality of Christian living and as a hoped for community of the future is a rather strongly held belief in the Community of Christ and it ties closely to the peace and justice emphasis of the denomination. The movement also differs from most other Christian faiths in its belief in prophetic leadership, in the Book of Mormon, and in an open canon of scripture recorded in its version of the Doctrine and Covenants, which is regularly appended. God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit. The Community of Christ teaches that the one eternal living God is triune. It acknowledges God, who is a community of three persons, as the Creator and the Source of love, life, and truth. It states that [t]his God alone is worthy of worship. Jesus Christ is described as both Savior and as a living expression of God and is acknowledged as having lived, died, and been resurrected. As the name of the denomination implies, Jesus Christ is central to its members’ study and worship. The Community of Christ’s Theology Task Force states that Jesus Christ is the Word made flesh, both fully human and fully divine. “[24] The Holy Spirit is described as the “continuing presence of God in the world and as the source of divine inspiration. The Independence and Kirtland Temples are places of education and worship for all people. In keeping with the Community of Christ’s role as a “peace and justice church, ” the Independence Temple was “dedicated to the pursuit of peace”. The church’s peace position was influenced by the Mennonite Central Committee Peace and Justice Education Associate. In addition, the Community of Christ International Peace Award has been bestowed annually since 1993 (except 1996). The call to “peace, reconciliation, and healing of the spirit” is a recurring theme of the Community of Christ and is reflected in its official vision statement. Doctrinal statements by the church suggest that because of our commitment to Christ and belief in the worth of all people and the value of community building, we dedicate our lives to the pursuit of peace and justice for all people. [2] The church maintains a Peace and Justice Ministries Office at its headquarters which is designed to provide resources, education and networking. The Peace Colloquy is a major conference on peace held annually at the Community of Christ headquarters. The Community of Christ promotes the Young Peacemakers Club as a means of teaching and promoting peace among children all over the world. In 2008, the church organized an additional 501(c)3 organization called the Peace Support Network whose stated purpose is to build a global movement which provides individuals the opportunity to join together based upon passion, calling, and that which resonates within them, rather than be constrained by the limitations of circumstance and geography. “Worth of all persons”. The Community of Christ states that God loves each of us equally and unconditionally. All persons have great worth and should be respected as creations of God with basic human rights. The willingness to love and the acceptance of others is essential to faithfulness to the gospel of Christ. “[2] Recognizing that scripture has sometimes been used to marginalize and oppress classes of persons, the church accepted this statement into the Doctrine and Covenants in 2007: “It is not pleasing to God when any passage of scripture is used to oppress races, genders, or classes of human beings. Many violent acts have been committed against some of God’s beloved children through the misuse of scripture. The church is called to confess and repent of such attitudes and practices. Revelation and prophetic leadership. Joseph Smith III, later in life, the eldest surviving son of Joseph Smith founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Taking up the mantle of his father’s prophetic role, Joseph Smith III became the second Prophet-President of what became known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, now called Community of Christ. The belief in continuing divine revelation is a distinctive aspect of the church. The Community of Christ states that [t]he process through which God reveals divine will and love is called revelation. God continues to reveal today as in the past. God is revealed to us through scripture, the faith community, prayer, nature, and in human history. The president of the Community of Christ is sometimes referred to by the titles of Prophet or Prophet-President. The president of the church acts as a prophet when bringing occasional inspired counsel or inspired documents to the church. These are usually brief passages of text which bring encouragement, counsel and direction to the church. When an inspired document is presented to the World Conference by the president of the church, an elaborate review process takes place. Each quorum of the church and several caucuses review the document and vote upon it. The quorums typically vote heavily in favor of the documents and sometimes unanimously. Debate is allowed, however, and the body has been known to refer the inspired document back to the president for further reflection or for clarification. When the document comes to the floor of the World Conference for debate, the president retires from the room to allow for more impartial consideration. The World Conference may vote to include the document as a new section of the Doctrine and Covenants, which is regarded as scripture by the denomination. If the delegates at the World Conference do approve an inspired document, it is the custom of the church to then have a courtesy vote, which is opened to all non-delegates attending the conference. This is the only time non-delegates are permitted to vote on World Conference business. Through this action, the president of the church can be assured that a large representation of the church membership supports the inspired document. The concept of Zion in the Community of Christ relates to a theology of the “kingdom of God”. As a doctrine, it is therefore closely founded upon the kingdom parables of Jesus as recorded in the four gospels. Based on references in the Bible to Mt. Zion or simply Zion, it was initially regarded as a city, sometimes called the New Jerusalem. Prior to 1920, most members of the RLDS Church identified Independence, Missouri, as Zion or the New Jerusalem. As New Testament understandings of basileia, as the realm or the domain of God, have gradually taken root among members of the denomination, Zion is now understood more as a cause, as a way of living or as a state of existence, and is usually not regarded as having its foundation in a specific place. Officially, the denomination states that [t]he’cause of Zion’ expresses our commitment to pursuing God’s kingdom through the establishment of Christ-centered communities in families, congregations, neighborhoods, cities, and throughout the world. [2] While the Concept of Zion is rarely associated with the Jewish concept of Zionism, some members of the RLDS Church from Maine, intrigued by the doctrine of Zion, established a refugee center near Tel Aviv during the initial return of the Jewish diaspora to Israel in the early 1900s. The Community of Christ commonly attests that “all are called according to the gifts of God unto them” (D&C 119:8b). Published statements of belief proclaim that [a]ll men, women, youth, and children are given gifts and abilities to enhance life and to become involved in Christ’s mission. Some are called to fulfill a particular responsibility as ordained ministers (priesthood) in the church. The church provides for a wide range of priesthood ministries through the calling and ordination of both men and women. Nearly one in ten members of the church hold a priesthood office. These are primarily unpaid bi-vocational ministers. The church does maintain a relatively small group of professional ministers who typically serve as administrators, financial officers or missionaries. Priesthood members are called to teach and preach the gospel or “good news” of Jesus Christ. The ministry of the church at the congregational level is led by priesthood members and is carried out by all members of the priesthood and the laity. In most congregations the pastors and other elected and appointed leadership positions are unpaid positions. The right of women to hold the priesthood was recognized by a church conference in 1984. The Community of Christ Theology Task Force offers theological statements on the principle of salvation for the consideration of members, but the denomination does not expect strict doctrinal adherence on such matters of belief. The task force presents the view that salvation and eternal life are gifts and that by baptism and discipleship lived as a response to the gospel, individuals become new people. The “Disciples’ Generous Response” (or “A Disciple’s Generous Response”) was announced in April 2002 as the name given by the Community of Christ to a major rethinking of its stewardship theology and practices. [30] Prior to this program, members of the Community of Christ were taught that a stewardship principle known as “increase” determined the base amount for tithing to be paid to the church. Based in part on teachings by writers such as Walter Brueggemann and Leonard Sweet, the Disciple’s Generous Response can be traced to a theology or liturgy of abundance, as well as the principle of receiving God’s abundance. Like many recent enhancements of church doctrine and practice, it is described as belonging to a postmodernism trend in thinking within the church. [31] While carefully built upon the many differing stewardship principles in both overall Christian and specific Community of Christ traditions, the new thinking emphasizes a natural generosity in all of life lived as response to the overwhelming and incomparable generosity of God. As such, tithing is not limited to World Church giving as in the past, or even to the church at all. Through the principle of community tithes, almost any charitable organization to which a disciple contributes could be considered tithing. While most giving is now seen as tithing, the typical interpretation is that a majority of one’s tithing should be given in Mission Tithes (Tithes to Local and World Church) and the minority to Community Tithes Organizations like Outreach International, Graceland University, Restoration Trails Foundation, World Accord, etc. The church teaches the principle of community tithes believing that it will not decrease giving to the church, but rather increase it as more members embrace a fully generous and responsive way of living. The new stewardship thinking in the Disciples’ Generous Response is referred to indirectly in the book of Doctrine and Covenants 162:7c as the principle of generosity, rightly interpreted for a new time. [32] The six principles of the Disciples’ Generous Response call on Christian disciples to practice generosity as a spiritual discipline, respond faithfully to the blessings of God, to give financially as appropriate to our unique personal circumstances and desires, to share in mission tithes and community tithes, to save wisely for the future and to spend responsibly. Responsibility for interpretation and teaching of the Disciples’ Generous Response lies principally with the Presiding Bishopric. Communion for a Community of Christ meeting in Provo, Utah. Members commonly believe that sacraments (or ordinances) express the abiding presence of God in the life of the church, its members and priesthood. Sacraments are considered metaphorical acts designed to create and renew a person’s spiritual relationship with God. Sacraments are viewed as covenants with God in response to God’s grace. The Community of Christ practices eight sacraments:[33] baptism, confirmation, blessing of children, The Lord’s Supper, marriage, ministration to the sick, ordination, and Evangelist’s Blessing. Laying on of hands is used in confirmation, ordination, the blessing of children, ministration to the sick, and Evangelist’s blessing. The Community of Christ points to Jesus Christ as the living Word of God[34] and it affirms the Bible (including but not limited to the Inspired Version of the Holy Scriptures) along with the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants, as scripture for the church. The Community of Christ view of scripture is that it should be reasonably interpreted and faithfully applied. Scripture references provided for congregational worship generally follow the Revised Common Lectionary. The church views the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants as additional witnesses of Christ’s ministry and God’s love. The Community of Christ understands scripture as an inspired record of God’s activity with humanity. While it recognizes scripture as the revelation of God, its members would not typically suggest that scriptures constitute the literal words of God. [35] In words of counsel to the church brought by church president Stephen M. Veazey in 2007 and now included in Section 163 of the Doctrine and Covenants, it is suggested that [s]cripture is an indispensable witness to the Eternal Source of light and truth, which cannot be contained in any finite vessel or language. Scripture has been written and shaped by human authors through experiences of revelation and ongoing inspiration of the Holy Spirit in the midst of time and culture. Scripture is not to be worshipped or idolized. Only God, the Eternal One of whom scripture testifies, is worthy of worship. God’s nature, as revealed in Jesus Christ and affirmed by the Holy Spirit, provides the ultimate standard by which any portion of scripture should be interpreted and applied. Scripture has been given a place in the Community of Christ theology. Doctrine and Covenants 163 states: Scripture, prophetic guidance, knowledge, and discernment in the faith community must walk hand in hand to reveal the true will of God. ” The Community of Christ’s Theology Task Force has produced nine affirmations regarding scripture, the preamble of which states: “Scripture provides divine guidance and inspired insight for life when responsibly interpreted and faithfully applied. Scripture helps us believe in Jesus Christ. Its witness guides us to eternal life and enables us to grow spiritually, to transform our lives, and to participate actively in the life and ministry of the church. In unity with Christianity, the Community of Christ upholds the Bible as scripture. Both the Hebrew Old Testament and the Christian New Testament are utilized in public worship as well as in private study. The church encourages prayerful meditation upon the meaning and the importance of Bible passages. If any of you is lacking in wisdom, ask God, who gives to all generously and ungrudgingly, and it will be given you. But ask in faith, never doubting (James 1:5-6) is an oft quoted passage from the New Testament, as well as being the scripture reference that Joseph Smith read when he was trying, as a boy, to determine what church to join. His experience following his reading of this scripture resulted in the eventual organization of the Church of Christ. The Community of Christ does not prescribe a single translation of the Bible. Although Smith began a project to revise the King James Version by inspiration during his lifetime, the liturgy of the church today is usually based on more recent translations of the Bible. Upon Smith’s death, the working manuscript of his translation was retained by his family and came into the possession of the Community of Christ. The work was edited and is published by the church as the Inspired Version of the Bible. Since it largely relies on the language of the King James Version, most official publications of the Community of Christ quote scripture from newer versions such as the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV). The Community of Christ does not view scripture, including the Bible, as inerrant. Members are encouraged to understand the historical and literary context of Bible passages and are not required to interpret all of the language literally. Book of Mormon 1830 reprint (facsimile of first copy of the Book of Mormon) by Herald Heritage. Reprint 1970 Independence, Missouri. The Community of Christ views the Book of Mormon as an additional witness of Jesus Christ and publishes two versions of the book through its official publishing arm, Herald House. The Authorized Edition is based on the original printer’s manuscript and the 1837 Second Edition (or Kirtland Edition) of the Book of Mormon. Its content is similar to the Book of Mormon published by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), but the versification is different. The Community of Christ also publishes a 1966 “Revised Authorized Edition” which attempts to modernize some of the language. In 2001, church president W. Grant McMurray reflected on increasing questions about the Book of Mormon: The proper use of the Book of Mormon as sacred scripture has been under wide discussion in the 1970s and beyond, in part because of long-standing questions about its historicity and in part because of perceived theological inadequacies, including matters of race and ethnicity. “[38] In the introduction he qualified his statements: “I cannot speak for each person within our community, but perhaps I can say some words on behalf of our community. At the 2007 Community of Christ World Conference, church president Stephen M. Veazey ruled as out of order a resolution to “reaffirm the Book of Mormon as a divinely inspired record”. In so doing he stated that while the Church affirms the Book of Mormon as scripture, and makes it available for study and use in various languages, we do not attempt to mandate the degree of belief or use. This position is in keeping with our longstanding tradition that belief in the Book of Mormon is not to be used as a test of fellowship or membership in the church. The church’s official stance has this to say about the Book of Mormon (under Affirmation Nine). With other Christians, we affirm the Bible as the foundational scripture for the church. In addition, the Community of Christ uses the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants as scripture. We do not use these sacred writings to replace the witness of the Bible or improve upon it, but because they confirm its message that Jesus Christ is the Living Word of God (Preface of the Book of Mormon; Doctrine and Covenants 76: 3g). We have heard Christ speak in all three books of scripture, and bear witness that he is’alive forever and ever’ (Revelation 1:18). Book of Doctrine and Covenants. The Community of Christ edition of the Doctrine and Covenants is a growing work of scripture containing inspired documents given through the prophet-presidents recognized by the Community of Christ. It contains inspirational Christian messages such as this passage shared by former President, W. Grant McMurray as inspired counsel: Open your hearts and feel the yearnings of your brothers and sisters who are lonely, despised, fearful, neglected, unloved. Reach out in understanding, clasp their hands, and invite all to share in the blessings of community created in the name of the One who suffered on behalf of all. (Doctrine and Covenants 161:3a). Church president Stephen Veazey presented words of counsel to the membership, which were accepted as scripture on March 30, 2007. This document, now officially Section 163[41] of the Doctrine and Covenants, further challenges the Community of Christ’s membership to engage in ministries that foster peace, and are specifically charged to “pursue peace” and to “strive to be faithful to Christ’s vision of the peaceable Kingdom of God on earth”. On January 17, 2010, Veazey presented his second revelation, which was officially approved as Section 164[42] in April 2010. This document enables the church to accept new members previously baptized in other churches via the sacrament of confirmation, instead of having to be re-baptized (although they may be re-baptized if they so wish). The counsel also encourages all church members to periodically reflect upon the meaning of their own baptisms; as well as providing clarification on open communion. In addition, the church is called to more directly confront global concerns of an ethical nature. Finally, the document authorized the church leadership to adjust the number of missionary quorums of the church to align with the particular needs of the church as they may exist. The Community of Christ employs a three-year lectionary cycle based upon the Revised Common Lectionary (RCL) used by other Christian traditions. The readings from the biblical canon are those of the RCL except where the Inspired Version differs in versification from other biblical canons. In these instances verses from the RCL are given along with the corresponding verses of the Inspired Version. In addition, the church has added readings from the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants, however after feedback and to allow flexibility the church stopped using the 3-year cycle for Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants readings and now these readings are chosen by the author(s) of the Worship Helps published each year and are to be tied to the chosen theme for that Sunday. Worship helps based on the lectionary are published by the Herald House as well as posted on the official denominational website and they include sample orders of worship with recommended hymns from the official denominational hymnal, Community of Christ Sings. Ecumenism and interfaith activities. The Community of Christ has made efforts to reconcile with traditional Christianity and to reach out to other Christians. The Community of Christ frequently notes that it has never sanctioned polygamy; it has always ordained persons of any race; it has no required creedal statement, asking only that people profess faith in Christ as a condition for baptism; it has accepted Trinitarian doctrine; it has been in dialogue with the National Council of Churches (NCC), [43] the World Council of Churches (WCC), and Christian Churches Together; and it has practiced open communion since 1994. [44] On November 10, 2010, the Community of Christ was unanimously approved for membership by the National Council of Churches, becoming the 37th member communion of this ecumenical body. In its World Conference in 2002, a committee on “Ecumenical/Interfaith Relations” was established to explore the possibility of entering into the membership of the WCC. In its report for the 2004 World Conference, the committee concluded that while there was an openness to further meetings and discussions, there were concerns about several issues including new entrance criteria based on theology and the Community of Christ’s acceptance of extra-biblical scriptures. The report states that this warrants caution in their approach, but the dialogue would continue. The church’s priesthood was opened to women in 1984. In 1998, Gail E. Mengel and Linda L. Booth became the first two women apostles in the church. [47] At the 2007 World Conference of the church, Becky L. Savage was ordained as the first woman to serve in the First Presidency. [48][49] In 2013, Linda L. Booth became the first woman elected to serve as president of the Council of Twelve. [50] In 2016, Stassi D. Cramm became the first woman presiding bishop of the church[51][52] and Jane M. Gardner became the church’s first female presiding evangelist. The church is accepting of same-sex relationships. For a period of time, the church under the presidency of W. Grant McMurray allowed the priesthood ordination of practicing homosexuals, something which he acknowledged was already occurring. The church would later halt this practice, prohibiting the ordination of sexually active homosexuals. However, the church allows those who were ordained against policy to continue in priesthood office. In 2012, the Community of Christ held national conferences in Canada and Australia both of which recommended to church leadership to change standing policies regarding ordination to include those in same-sex marriage (Canada) and in marriage-like same-sex committed relationships (Australia), and in Canada to extend the sacrament of marriage to same-sex couples. Official policy changes for these nations have since been released that follow the recommendations of these conferences. The Community of Christ’s 2013 USA National Conference like those in Canada and Australia recommended changes. Those changes were recommended for the extension of the sacrament of marriage to same-sex couples in states where same-sex marriages are legal, the extension of covenant commitment services for same-sex couples in states where same-sex marriages are not yet legal, and extending eligibility for the priesthood call sacrament to all church members regardless of sexual orientation or open same-sex relationship. As a result of these recommendations, church leadership released in March 2014 policy embracing the recommendations for the church in the United States. Ireland and Great Britain held a special multi-nation conference in 2013 which also recommended changes to policy similar to those of Canada, Australia, and the United States. The changes have yet to be approved by the First Presidency and Council of Twelve for Ireland and Great Britain, with the likely time-frame to “develop, approve, and implement interim policies” being up to one year after the 2013 Conferences. A petition by the Australia Mission Centre Council to permit same-sex marriages was approved by the First Presidency in 2017. The Community of Christ Stone Church in Independence, Missouri, formerly the church headquarters. The Community of Christ is led by a First Presidency, consisting of a president and two counselors. The president is regarded as a prophet. The church’s ministry is overseen by a Council of Twelve Apostles and the financial concerns of the church are overseen by the Presiding Bishopric. Meeting together, these three quorums are known as the World Church Leadership Council. Other key leadership positions include Presiding Evangelist, Senior President of the Presidents of Seventy, President of the High Priests Quorum, and Ecumenical and Interfaith Officer. Every three years (formerly two, until a change made in 2007), delegates from around the world meet together with these leaders to vote on church business in World Conference. The Community of Christ membership includes 250,000 members in 1,100 congregations in 59 countries according to the most recent official audit report. [1] Membership is distributed as 30,000 in Africa, 9,000 in Asia, 8,000 in Canada, 13,250 in the Caribbean, 2,500 in Europe, 12,250 in the Pacific and Australia, 4,500 in Central and South America, and 117,000 in the United States according to the 2016 World Conference Bulletin. The church is officially established in the following countries and territories: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Germany, Guam, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Liberia, Malawi, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Philippines, Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Taiwan, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It is estimated that more than half of the active members of the church speak a primary language other than English. [58] The church translates resources into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Telugu, Kwi, Sora, Tahitian, Chewa, Chibemba, Efik, Lingala and Swahili. For the purposes of church organization and administration, the church has divided the world into geographical areas termed fields (which can include areas that are not adjoining, such as Australia and parts of Canada). Each field is presided over by a member of the Council of Twelve Apostles, who are collectively overseen by a member of the First Presidency, in his or her capacity of Director of Field Ministries (this role was previously held by the President of the Council of Twelve but followed the outgoing president when he joined the First Presidency in 2013). Fields are further divided into multiple Mission Centers, which succeeded the former jurisdictional units known as stakes and regions (which were each further divided into the now abolished level of district). Each mission center is presided over by a president, holding the office of high priest. Mission centers are composed of congregations, presided over by a pastor or co-pastors. The current fields are: Africa and Haiti Mission Field, Asia Mission Field, Canada and Australia Mission Field, Caribbean-Mexico Mission Field, Central and South America Mission Field, Eurasia Mission Field, North Central USA/Canada Mission Field, North East USA Mission Field, Pacific Mission Field, South Central USA Mission Field, Southern USA Mission Field and Western USA Mission Field. Mormon scholars, including members of the Community of Christ, have sometimes described the church as “adrift”, not being distinctively Mormon enough, but not completely mainline either. [60] The church has made a long-standing effort to de-mythologize its past, for example, by taking a pragmatic view of the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith, both of which the church now views as inspired but imperfect. Historian Ken Mulliken has argued that this has led to a policy of “historical amnesia”, resulting in a church that has abandoned its past and created a new organization that is focused on social-interaction (Community) and shared mission (Christ). Comparison of the Community of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. List of churches in the Latter Day Saint Reorganization movement. The Choctaw Nation (Choctaw: Oklahumma Chahta Okla) is a Native American[4] territory covering about 6,952,960 acres (28,138 km2; 10,864 sq mi), occupying portions of southeastern Oklahoma in the United States. [5] The Choctaw Nation is the third-largest federally recognized tribe in the United States and the second-largest Indian reservation in area after the Navajo. As of 2011, the tribe has 223,279 enrolled members, of whom 84,670 live within the state of Oklahoma[6] and 41,616 live within the Choctaw Nation’s jurisdiction. [7] A total of 233,126 people live within these boundaries, with its tribal jurisdictional area comprising 10.5 counties in the state. It shares borders with the reservations of the Chickasaw, Muscogee, and Cherokee, as well as the U. States of Texas and Arkansas. By area, the Choctaw Nation is larger than eight U. The chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, who took office on April 29, 2014, after the retirement of Gregory E. [8] The Choctaw Nation Headquarters, which houses the office of the Chief, is located in Durant. [3] Durant is also the seat of the tribe’s judicial department, housed in the Choctaw Nation Judicial Center, near the Headquarters. The tribal legislature meets at the Council House, across the street from the historic Choctaw Capitol Building, in Tuskahoma. The Capitol Building has been adapted for use as the Choctaw Nation Museum. The largest city in the nation is McAlester. The Choctaw Nation is one of three federally recognized Choctaw tribes; the others are the sizable Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, with 10,000 members and territory in several communities, and the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians in Louisiana, with a few hundred members. The latter two bands are descendants of Choctaw who resisted the forced relocation to Indian Territory. The Mississippi Choctaw preserved much of their culture in small communities and reorganized as a tribal government in 1945 under new laws after the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Those Choctaw who removed to the Indian Territory, a process that went on into the early 20th century, are federally recognized as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. [9] The removals became known as the Trail of Tears. The original territory has expanded and shrunk several times since the 19th century. Map of the Choctaw Nation, c. In English, the official name for the area was “Choctaw Nation”, as outlined in Article III of the 1866 Reconstruction Treaty following the Civil War. During its time of sovereignty within the United States Indian Territory, it also utilized the title “Choctaw Republic”. [10] Since 1971, it is officially referred to as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation maintains a special relationship with both the federal and Oklahoma governments. Officially a domestic dependent nation since 1971, in July 2020, the Supreme Court ruled in McGirt v. Oklahoma that the eastern area of Oklahoma- about half of the modern state- never lost its status as a Native reservation. This includes the city of Tulsa (located between Muscogee and Cherokee territory). The area includes lands of the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee, Muscogee and Seminole. Among other effects, the decision potentially overturns convictions of over a thousand cases in the area involving tribe members convicted under state laws. [11] The ruling is based on an 1832 treaty, which the court ruled was still in force, adding that Because Congress has not said otherwise, we hold the government to its word. Hills and forests of the Choctaw Nation. Boundaries of the Choctaw Nation and the remaining “Five Civilized Tribes” in Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma’s reservation covers 10,864 square miles (28,140 km2), encompassing eight whole counties and parts of five counties in Southeastern Oklahoma. Most of Bryan County. Most of Coal County. Half of Hughes County. A portion of Johnston County. A portion of Pontotoc County, and. The former Choctaw Nation Headquarters in Durant. The historic Choctaw Capitol in Tuskahoma, now used as a museum of the nation. The Tribal Headquarters are located in Durant. Opened in June 2018, the new headquarters is a 5-story, 500,000 square foot building located on an 80-acre campus in south Durant. It is near other tribal buildings, such as the Regional Health Clinic, Wellness Center, Community Center, Child Development Center, and Food Distribution. [14] Previously, headquarters was located in the former Oklahoma Presbyterian College, with more offices scattered around Durant. The current chief is Gary Batton[8] and the assistant chief is Jack Austin, Jr. The Tribal Council meets monthly at Tvshka Homma. The tribe is governed by the Choctaw Nation Constitution, which was ratified by the people on June 9, 1984. The constitution provides for an executive, a legislative and a judicial branch of government. The chief of the Choctaw Tribe, elected every four years, is not a voting member of the Tribal Council. These members are elected from single-member districts for four-year terms. The legislative authority of the tribe is vested in the Tribal Council, which consists of twelve members. Citizenship in the Choctaw Nation is outlined in Article II Section I of the constitution which states that membership is for Choctaw Indians by blood whose names appear on the final rolls of the Choctaw Nation approved pursuant to Section 2 of the Act of April 26, 1906 and their lineal descendant. The constitution cannot be amended without a vote of tribal members and currently excludes Choctaw freedmen. [15] A constitutional amendment can be passed through two methods: 1 a proposal of Tribal Council requiring 8 affirmative votes and/or 2 by a petition containing the entire text of the amendment and signed by no less than 30 percent of the total number of qualified voters voting in the last Chief’s election. While the current Chief, Gary Batton, disagrees that denying citizenship to the freedmen is a race issue, [16] this ignores the historical racist legacy of the Dawes Rolls. [17][18] Also, because the Nation, along with the other Five Civilized Tribes, supported the Confederacy during the U. Civil War, they severed ties with the federal government, [19] making the U. Require these tribes to make new peace treaties, emancipate their slaves, and offer full citizenship. Numerous families had intermarried by that time or had other personal ties to the tribe as well, [20] but the Choctaw Nation did not uphold the Treaty of 1866. [16] Some like Chief Batton and Dr. Blue Clarke, a Muscogee Nation citizen and a professor of Indigenous Law at Oklahoma City University, claim it is an issue about tribal sovereignty, though it’s only within the last 50 years that they have not been recognized as citizens. The “Freedmen were adopted in as part of the tribe in 1885″ but in 1983, the Choctaw Nation added a’by-blood’ requirement into the constitution that excluded many. ” While tribal sovereignty at times seeks for the tribe to be treated like a country with similar rights, tribes have “treaty relationships with the United States, which makes that relationship part of the foundational fabric of the U. Government and the Five Tribes also made agreements with the government after losing in the Civil War when they sided with the Confederacy. For many Choctaw Freedmen, it is about getting the tribe to acknowledge its participation in chattel slavery through Native American slave ownership. [21] The citizenship definition of many tribal nations runs counter to how other countries or nations define their citizenship (based on borders, birth location, naturalization, instead of descendance, race, or ethnicity), and most federally recognized tribes are subject to the U. Government’s final acceptance. Politically, the Choctaw Nation is predominantly encompassed by Oklahoma’s 2nd congressional district, represented by Republican Markwayne Mullin, a Cherokee. However some smaller strands are located within the 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom Cole, a Chickasaw. With a majority of both Native American and white voters in the region leaning conservative, Republican Donald Trump carried every county in the Choctaw Nation in the 2020 election, as well as every county in the state of Oklahoma, continuing a trend seen in the 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 elections. The Choctaw Nation is located in one of the most conservative areas of Oklahoma, and while registered Democrats outnumber Republicans, the region has consistently gone to Republican candidates. The current head of the government, Chief Gary Batton, is a Democrat. The Chief that preceded him, Gregory Pyle, was as well. The Choctaw Nation also has the right to appoint a non-voting delegate to the U. House of Representatives, per the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek; as of 2020 however, no delegate has been named or sent to the Congress by the Choctaw Nation. Chief Gary Batton is said to be observing the process of the Cherokee Nation nominating their treaty-stipulated delegate to the U. The supreme executive power of the Choctaw Nation is assigned to a chief magistrate, styled as the “Chief of the Choctaw Nation”. The Assistant Chief is appointed by the Chief with the advice and consent of the Tribal Council, and can be removed at the discretion of the Chief. [24] The current Chief of the Choctaw Nation is Gary Batton, and the current Assistant Chief is Jack Austin, Jr. The Chief’s birthday (Batton’s is December 15) is a tribal holiday. In 2021, the tribal council instituted October 16 as Choctaw Flag Day, a holiday to celebrate the adoption of the Choctaw Nation Seal on October 16, 1860. Before Oklahoma was admitted to the union as a state in 1907, the Choctaw Nation was divided into three districts: Apukshunnubbee, Moshulatubbee, and Pushmataha. Each district had its own chief from 1834 to 1857; afterward, the three districts were put under the jurisdiction of one chief. The three districts were re-established in 1860, again each with their own chief, with a fourth chief to be Principal Chief of the tribe. [25] These districts were abolished at the time of statehood, as tribal government and land claims were dissolved in order for the territory to be admitted as a state. The tribe later reorganized to re-establish its government. Districts abolished in 1857. (Appointed by Roosevelt in 1906). (First appointed by Eisenhower). The legislative authority is vested in the Tribal Council. Members of the Tribal Council are elected by the Choctaw people, one for each of the twelve districts in the Choctaw Nation. Current district map of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. Award-winning painter Norma Howard is enrolled in the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. The Tribal council members are the voice and representation of the Choctaw people in the tribal government. In order to be elected as council members, candidates must have resided in their respective districts for at least one year immediately preceding the election and must be at least one-fourth (1/4) Choctaw Indian by blood and at least twenty-one (21) years of age. [27] Once elected, council members must remain a resident of their district during the term in office. Once in office, the Tribal council members have regularly scheduled county council meetings. The presence of these tribal leaders in the Indian community creates a sense of understanding of their community and its needs. The Tribal Council is responsible for adopting rules and regulations which govern the Choctaw Nation, for approving all budgets, decisions concerning the management of tribal property, and all other legislative matters. The Tribal Council assists the community to implement an economic development strategy and to plan, organize, and direct Tribal resources to achieve self-sufficiency. The judicial authority of the Choctaw Nation is assigned to the Court of General Jurisdiction (which includes the District Court and the Appellate Division) and the Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Court consists of a three-member court, who are appointed by the Chief. At least one member, the presiding judge (Chief Justice), must be a lawyer licensed to practice before the Supreme Court of Oklahoma. Chief Justice David Burrage. Presiding Judge Pat Phelps. Presiding District Judge Richard Branam. District Judge Mark Morrison. District Judge Rebecca Cryer. The Choctaw underwent many changes to their government since its first interactions with the United States. The Choctaw Nation acknowledges these treaties and categorizes them by “Pre-Removal Treaties” and “Post-Removal Treaties”. [32] The tribe employs nearly 8,500 people worldwide;[33] 2,000 of those work in Bryan County, Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation is also the largest single employer in Durant. The Choctaw Nation has helped build water systems and towers, roads and other infrastructure, and has contributed to additional fire stations, EMS units and law enforcement needs that have accompanied economic growth. The Choctaw Nation operates several types of businesses. It has seven casinos, 14 tribal smoke shops, 13 truck stops, and two Chili’s franchises in Atoka and Poteau. [3] It also owns a printing operation, a corporate drug testing service, hospice care, a metal fabrication and manufacturing business, a document backup and archiving business, and a management services company that provides staffing at military bases, embassies and other sites, among other enterprises. Choctaw Nation Tribal Services Center in Hugo, Oklahoma. The Choctaw Nation is the first indigenous tribe in the United States to build its own hospital with its own funding. [34] The Choctaw Nation Health Care Center, located in Talihina, is a 145,000-square-foot (13,500 m2) health facility with 37 hospital beds for inpatient care and 52 exam rooms. It serves 150,000-210,000 outpatient visits annually. The hospital also houses the Choctaw Nation Health Services Authority, the hub of the tribal health care services of Southeastern Oklahoma. The tribe also operates eight Indian clinics, one each in Atoka, Broken Bow, Durant, Hugo, Idabel, McAlester, Poteau, and Stigler. 2008 Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma has participated in a great deal of help for those outside of their nation. In fact, they took part in helping United States troops overseas. They did this by putting together care packages. Their total of packages sent out were close to 3,500. These packages were sent to troops throughout Iraq and Afghanistan. The United States Department of Defense has an award called the Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award. This award is the highest recognition given by the U. Government to employers for their outstanding support of employees who serve in the National Guard and Reserve. [36] The executive Director of the National Committee for Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve, Dr. Said, We are pleased and excited to announce Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma as a recipient of the 2008 Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award. The tremendous support Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma provides for Guard and Reserve employees and their families is exemplary and helps our citizen warriors protect our nation without concern for their jobs. The Choctaw Nation was one of 15 recipients of that year’s Freedom Award, selected from 2,199 nominations. Its representatives received the award September 18, 2008 in Washington, D. They received the award based on their large employer status with the National Guard and Reserves. The Choctaw Nation is the first Native American tribe to receive this award. Oklahomans who serve our country do so at tremendous personal expense and risk. The Choctaw Nation has gone above and beyond to support those men and women, said Sen. They are a shining example of how employers and communities can go that extra mile for our military personnel. Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (1830). The Choctaw were recognized as a sovereign nation under the protection of the United States with the Treaty of Hopewell in 1786. They were militarily aligned with the United States during the American Revolutionary War, Northwest Indian War, Creek Civil War, and the War of 1812. However, relations soured following the election of Andrew Jackson. At Jackson’s personal request, the United States Congress opened a fierce debate on an Indian Removal Bill. [38] In the end, the bill passed, but the vote was very close: The Senate passed the measure, 28 to 19, while in the House it passed, 102 to 97. Jackson signed the legislation into law June 30, 1830, [38] and turned his focus onto the Choctaw in Mississippi Territory. On August 25, 1830, the Choctaws were supposed to meet with Jackson in Franklin, Tennessee, but Greenwood Leflore, a district Choctaw chief, informed Secretary of War John H. Eaton that the warriors were fiercely opposed to attending. [39] Jackson was angered. Journalist Len Green writes although angered by the Choctaw refusal to meet him in Tennessee, Jackson felt from LeFlore’s words that he might have a foot in the door and dispatched Secretary of War Eaton and John Coffee to meet with the Choctaws in their nation. [40] Jackson appointed Eaton and General John Coffee as commissioners to represent him to meet the Choctaws at the Dancing Rabbit Creek near present-day Noxubee County, Mississippi. Say to them as friends and brothers to listen [to] the voice of their father, & friend. Where [they] now are, they and my white children are too near each other to live in harmony & peace…. It is their white brothers and my wishes for them to remove beyond the Mississippi, it [contains] the [best] advice to both the Choctaws and Chickasaws, whose happiness… Will certainly be promoted by removing…. Their children can live upon [it as] long as grass grows or water runs…. It shall be theirs forever… And all who wish to remain as citizens [shall have] reservations laid out to cover [their improv]ements; and the justice due [from a] father to his red children will [be awarded to] them. [Again I] beg you, tell them to listen. [The plan proposed] is the only one by which [they can be] perpetuated as a nation…. Andrew Jackson to the Choctaw & Chickasaw Nations, 1829. The commissioners met with the chiefs and headmen on September 15, 1830, at Dancing Rabbit Creek. [42] In carnival-like atmosphere, the policy of removal was explained to an audience of 6,000 men, women, and children. [42] The Choctaws would now face migration or submit to US law as citizens. [42] The treaty would sign away the remaining traditional homeland to the US; however, a provision in the treaty made removal more acceptable:[citation needed]. Chickasaw and Choctaw territory in Mississippi; the remaining lands ceded in the 1830s in the Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. In 1830 Mosholatubbee sought to be elected to the Congress of the United States before moving to Indian Territory. 1834, Smithsonian American Art Museum. Each Choctaw head of a family being desirous to remain and become a citizen of the States, shall be permitted to do so, by signifying his intention to the Agent within six months from the ratification of this Treaty, and he or she shall thereupon be entitled to a reservation of one section of six hundred and forty acres of land…. Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, 1830. On September 27, 1830, the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was signed. It represented one of the largest transfers of land that was signed between the US government and Native Americans without being instigated by warfare. By the treaty, the Choctaws signed away their remaining traditional homelands, opening them up for European-American settlement. The Choctaw were the first to walk the Trail of Tears. Article XIV allowed for nearly 1,300 Choctaws to remain in the state of Mississippi and to become the first major non-European ethnic group to become US citizens. [43][44][45][46] Article 22 sought to put a Choctaw representative in the U. [43] The Choctaw at this crucial time split into two distinct groups: the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma and the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The nation retained its autonomy, but the tribe in Mississippi submitted to state and federal laws. To the voters of Mississippi. Fellow Citizens:-I have fought for you, I have been by your own act, made a citizen of your state… I have always battled on the side of this republic… I have been told by my white brethren, that the pen of history is impartial, and that in after years, our forlorn kindred will have justice and “mercy too”… I wish you would elect me a member to the next Congress of the [United] States. Mushulatubba, Christian Mirror and N. The Indian Removal Act, a law implementing Removal Policy, was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The act delineated Indian Territory, where the U. Federal government forcibly relocated tribes from across the United States, including Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands (such as the Natchez, Yuchi, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee and Seminole). The forced relocation of the Choctaw Nation in 1831 is called the Trail of Tears. Congress defined the first Indian Territory, [49] with the Five Civilized Tribes occupying the land that eventually became the State of Oklahoma, excluding its panhandle. Influence of Cyrus Kingsbury’s Choctaw Mission (1840). The Reverend Cyrus Kingsbury, who had ministered among the Choctaw since 1818, accompanied the Choctaws from the Mayhew Mission in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi to their new location in Indian Territory. [citation needed][a] He established the church in Boggy Depot in 1840. The church building was the temporary capitol of the Choctaw Nation in 1859. Allen Wright (principal chief of the Choctaw Republic from late 1866 to 1870) lived much of his early life with Kingsbury at Doaksville and the mission school at Pine Ridge. Armstrong Academy was founded in Chahta Tamaha, Indian Territory as a school for Choctaw boys in 1844. [51] It was named after William Armstrong, a popular agent of the Choctaws. Great Irish Famine aid (1847). Choctaw Stickball Player, Painted by George Catlin, 1834. It had been just 16 years since the Choctaw people had experienced the Trail of Tears, and they had faced starvation… It was an amazing gesture. By today’s standards, it might be a million dollars, wrote Judy Allen in 1992, editor of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma’s newspaper, Bishinik. In 2015 a sculpture known as Kindred Spirits was erected in the town of Midleton, County Cork, Ireland to commemorate the Choctaw Nation’s donation. A delegation of 20 members of the Choctaw Nation attended the opening ceremony along with the County Mayor of Cork. In 2018 Irish Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Leo Varadkar announced the Choctaw-Ireland Scholarship Programme – an opportunity for Choctaw students to study in Ireland. The program was launched “in recognition of the act of generosity and humanitarianism shown by the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma towards the people of Ireland during the Great Famine of the mid-Nineteenth Century, and to foster and deepen the ties between the two nations today”. However, the programme is only available for postgraduate students, and those studying at Cork University; within the disciplines of Art, Social Sciences or Celtic Studies. Controversy over Slaveholding and separation from Chickasaw Nation (1855). See also: Choctaw freedmen § Government involvement. In Spring 1855, the ABCFM sent Dr. George Warren Wood to visit the Choctaw Mission in Oklahoma to resolve a crisis over the abolition issue. [54] After arriving in Stockbridge Mission, Wood spent over two weeks days visiting missions including the Goodwater Mission, Wheelock Academy, Spencer Academy, and other mission schools. He met with missionaries to discuss Selah B Treat’s June 22, 1848 letter permitting them to maintain fellowship with slaveholders. [55] Ultimately, the crisis was not resolved, and by 1859, the Board cut ties to the Choctaw mission altogether. In 1855, the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations formally separated. Doaksville served as the capital of the Choctaw Nation between 1860 and 1863. An 1860 convention in Doaksville ratified the Doaksville Constitution that guided the Choctaw Nation until 1906. [citation needed] The capital moved to Mayhew Mission in 1859, then to Chahta Tamaha in 1863. [citation needed][56] The Oklahoma Historical Society claims that Doaksville began to decline in importance in 1854, when the U. Army abandoned Fort Towson. American Civil War in Indian Territory (1861-65). See also: Choctaw in the American Civil War. The Choctaws sided with the South during the Civil War. Tribal members had become successful cotton planters-owning many slaves. The most famous Choctaw planter was Robert M. He was part Choctaw and had become influential in politics. Jones eventually supported the Confederacy and became a non-voting member in the Confederacy’s House of Representatives. Jones was key for steering the Choctaw Nation in an alliance with the Confederacy. By 1860, the Choctaw Nation lived in a relatively calm and remote society. Many Indian citizen members had become successful farmers, planters, and business men. Angie Debo, author of The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic, wrote: Taken as a whole the generation from 1833 to 1861 presents a record of orderly development almost unprecedented in the history of any people. The Choctaws alone, of all the Indian nations, have remained perfectly united in their loyalty to this Government. It was said to me by more than one influential and reliable Choctaw during my sojourn in their country that not only had no member of that nation ever gone over to the enemy, but that no Indian had ever done so in whose veins coursed Choctaw blood. Scott to James A. Seddon, January 12, 1863[59]. Former flag of the Choctaw Nation, adopted in 1860 and carried by troops during the American Civil War. Territory transition to statehood (1900). Green McCurtain, the last independent Choctaw Chief before the Tribal Republic’s annexation by the U. Government into the new state of Oklahoma. The State of Sequoyah, a U. State for Indian Territory proposed in 1905. The Choctaw supported the proposition and were included in the new map. However, the statehood proposal was rejected by Congress, and Indian Territory was annexed in 1907. By the early twentieth century, the United States government had passed laws that reduced the Choctaw’s sovereignty and tribal rights in preparation for the extinguishing of land claims and for Indian Territory to be admitted, along with Oklahoma Territory, as part of the State of Oklahoma. Under the Dawes Act, in violation of earlier treaties, the Dawes Commission registered tribal members in official rolls. It was primarily intended for European-American (white) settlement and development. The government created “guardianship” by third parties who controlled allotments while the owners were underage. During the oil boom of the early 20th century, the guardianships became very lucrative; there was widespread abuse and financial exploitation of Choctaw individuals. Charles Haskell, the future governor of Oklahoma, was among the white elite who took advantage of the situation. An Act of 1906 spelled out the final tribal dissolution agreements for all of the five civilized tribes and dissolved the Choctaw government. After Oklahoma was admitted as a state in 1907, tribal chiefs of the Choctaw and other nations were appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. Pioneering the use of code talking (1918). During World War I the American army fighting in France became stymied by the Germans’ ability to intercept its communications. The Germans successfully decrypted the codes, and were able to read the Americans’ secrets and know their every move in advance. Several Choctaw serving in the 142nd Infantry suggested using their native tongue, the Choctaw language, to transmit army secrets. The Germans were unable to penetrate their language. This change enabled the Americans to protect their actions and almost immediately contributed to a turn-around on the Meuse-Argonne front. Captured German officers said they were baffled by the Choctaw words, which they were completely unable to translate. According to historian Joseph Greenspan, the Choctaw language did not have words for many military ideas, so the code-talkers had to invent other terms from their language. Examples are’big gun’ for artillery,’little gun shoot fast’ for machine gun,’stone’ for grenade and’scalps’ for casualties. [62] Historians credit these soldiers with helping bring World War I to a faster conclusion. There were fourteen Choctaw Code Talkers. The Army repeated the use of Native Americans as code talkers during World War II, working with soldiers from a variety of American Indian tribes, including the Navajo. Collectively the Native Americans who performed such functions are known as code talkers. The Burke Act of 1906 provided that tribal members would become full United States citizens within 25 years, if not before. In 1928 tribal leaders organized a convention of Choctaw and Chickasaw tribe members from throughout Oklahoma. They met in Ardmore to discuss the burdens being placed upon the tribes due to passage and implementation of the Indian Citizenship Act and the Burke Act. Since their tribal governments had been abolished, the tribes were concerned about the inability to secure funds that were due them for leasing their coal and asphalt lands, in order to provide for their tribe members. Czarina Conlan was selected as chair of the convention. They appointed a committee composed of Henry J. Bond, Conlan, Peter J. N Wright, for the Choctaw; and Ruford Bond, Franklin Bourland, George W. Burris, Walter Colbert and Estelle Ward, for the Chickasaw to determine how to address their concerns. After meeting to prepare the recommendation, the committee broke with precedent when it sent Czarina Conlan (Choctaw) and Estelle Chisholm Ward (Chickasaw) to Washington, D. To argue in favor of passage of a bill proposed by U. House Representative Wilburn Cartwright. It proposed sale of the coal and asphalt holdings, but continuing restrictions against sales of Indian lands. This was the first time that women had been sent to Washington as representatives of their tribes. From the late 1940s through the 1960s, the federal government considered an Indian termination policy, to end the special relationship of tribes. Retreating from the emphasis of self-government of Indian tribes, Congress passed a series of laws to enable the government to end its trust relationships with native tribes. On 13 August 1946, it passed the Indian Claims Commission Act of 1946, Pub. Its purpose was to settle for all time any outstanding grievances or claims the tribes might have against the U. Claims had to be filed within a five-year period. Most of the 370 complaints submitted were filed at the approach of the 5-year deadline in August 1951. In 1946, the government had appropriated funds for the sale of Choctaw tribal coal and asphalt resources. Belvin was appointed chief of the Choctaw in 1948 by the Secretary of the Interior, he realized that only federally recognized tribes were allowed to file a claim with the Commission. He created a democratically elected tribal council and a constitution to re-establish a government, but his efforts were opposed by the Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Ultimately, the Choctaw filed a claim with the Claims Commission on a technicality in 1951. The suit was classified as a renewal of the 1944 case against the US Court of Claims, but that did not stop the antagonism between Belvin and the area BIA officials. [61] The BIA had had management issues for decades. Poorly trained personnel, inefficiency, corruption, and lack of consistent policy plagued the organization almost from its founding. [67] For Belvin, relief from BIA oversight of policies and funds seemed as if it might enable the Choctaw to maintain their own traditional ways of operating and to reform their own governing council. After eleven years as Choctaw chief, Belvin persuaded Representative Carl Albert of Oklahoma to introduce federal legislation to begin terminating the Choctaw tribe. [61] On 23 April 1959, the BIA confirmed that H. 2722 had been submitted to Congress at the request of the tribe. It would provide for the government to sell all remaining tribal assets, but would not affect any individual Choctaw earnings. It also provided for the tribe to retain half of all mineral rights, to be managed by a tribal corporation. On 25 August 1959, Congress passed a bill[69] to terminate the tribe; it was called “Belvin’s law” because he was the main advocate behind it. Belvin created overwhelming support for termination among tribespeople through his promotion of the bill, describing the process and expected outcomes. Tribal members later interviewed said that Belvin never used the word “termination” for what he was describing, and many people were unaware he was proposing termination. [70] The provisions of the bill were intended to be a final disposition of all trust obligations and a final dissolution of the tribal governments. The original act was to have expired in 1962, but was amended twice to allow more time to sell the tribal assets. By 1967, he had asked Oklahoma Congressman Ed Edmondson to try to repeal the termination act. [61] Public sentiment was changing as well. The Choctaw people had seen what termination could do to tribes, since they witnessed the process with four other tribes in Oklahoma: the Wyandotte Nation, Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, and Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma. In 1969, ten years after passage of the Choctaw termination bill and one year before the Choctaws were to be terminated, word spread throughout the tribe that Belvin’s law was a termination bill. Outrage over the bill generated a feeling of betrayal, and tribal activists formed resistance groups opposing termination. Groups such as the Choctaw Youth Movement in the late 1960s fought politically against the termination law. They helped create a new sense of tribal pride, especially among younger generations. Their protest delayed termination; Congress repealed the law on 24 August 1970. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Find sources: “Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). The 1970s were a crucial and defining decade for the Choctaw. To a large degree, the Choctaw repudiated the more extreme Indian activism. They sought a local grassroots solution to reclaim their cultural identity and sovereignty as a nation. Republican President Richard Nixon, long sympathetic to American Indian rights, ended the government’s push for termination. On August 24, 1970, he signed a bill repealing the Termination Act of 1959, before the Choctaw would have been terminated. [clarification needed] Some Oklahoma Choctaw organized a grassroots movement to change the direction of the tribal government. In 1971, the Choctaw held their first popular election of a chief since Oklahoma entered the Union in 1907. Nixon stated the tribes had a right to determine their own destiny. A group calling themselves the Oklahoma City Council of Choctaws endorsed thirty-one-year-old David Gardner for chief, in opposition to the current chief, seventy-year-old Harry Belvin. Gardner campaigned on a platform of greater financial accountability, increased educational benefits, the creation of a tribal newspaper, and increased economic opportunities for the Choctaw people. Amid charges of fraud and rule changes concerning age, Gardner was declared ineligible to run. He did not meet the new minimum age requirement of thirty-five. Belvin was re-elected to a four-year term as chief. In 1975, thirty-five-year-old David Gardner defeated Belvin to become the Choctaw Nation’s second popularly elected chief. 1975 also marked the year that the United States Congress passed the landmark Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, which had been supported by Nixon before he resigned his office due to the Watergate scandal. This law revolutionized the relationship between Indian Nations and the federal government by providing for nations to make contracts with the BIA, in order to gain control over general administration of funds destined for them. Native American tribes such as the Choctaw were granted the power to negotiate and contract directly for services, as well as to determine what services were in the best interest of their people. During Gardner’s term as chief, a tribal newspaper, Hello Choctaw, was established. In addition, the Choctaw directed their activism at regaining rights to land and other resources. With the Muscogee and Cherokee nations, the Choctaw successfully sued the federal and state government over riverbed rights to the Arkansas River. Discussions began on the issue of drafting and adopting a new constitution for the Choctaw people. A movement began to increase official enrollment of members, increase voter participation, and preserve the Choctaw language. In early 1978, David Gardner died of cancer at the age of thirty-seven. Hollis Roberts was elected chief in a special election, serving from 1978 to 1997. In June 1978 the Bishinik replaced Hello Choctaw as the tribal newspaper. Spirited debates over a proposed constitution divided the people. In May 1979, they adopted a new constitution for the Choctaw nation. Faced with termination as a sovereign nation in 1970, the Choctaws emerged a decade later as a tribal government with a constitution, a popularly elected chief, a newspaper, and the prospects of an emerging economy and infrastructure that would serve as the basis for further empowerment and growth. Marcus Amerman (Choctaw), bead, glass, and performance artist. 1989, Major League Baseball player, Philadelphia Phillies (nephew of Choctaw member and attorney Kalyn Free). 1959, bead, glass, and performance artist. Anderson, 9th Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs. Jim Weaver Barnes b. 1933, poet, writer, rancher and former professor. 1966, Chief of the Choctaw Nation. 1974, appointed by President Donald Trump to be a federal judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas. 1968, President of Southeastern Oklahoma State University. 1952, former Oklahoma State Auditor and Inspector. And first woman elected to a school board in Oklahoma. 1939, political activist, businessman, and former University of California Regent of partial Choctaw descent. 1968, Member of the Oklahoma House of Representatives from the 16th district. Tobias William Frazier, Sr. 1951, writer and academic. 1947, printmaker, painter, and educator. 1957, author, editor, historian. Trent Shores, United States Attorney for the Northern District of Oklahoma since 2017. Representative from Oklahoma 2nd District, 1944-52. 1968, Member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from the 48th district. Tim Tingle, writer and storyteller. 1981, attorney, writer, and activist. Wallace Willis, composer of Negro spirituals, including Swing Low, Sweet Chariot and Roll, Jordan, Roll, Choctaw slave and Freedmen owned by Britt Willis. 1989, National Football League player. Choctaw code talkers, World War I veterans who provided a secure means of communication in their language; first Native American code talkers. Choctaw Trail of Tears. Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, Louisiana. Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. List of Indian Reservations. The New Testament[note 1] (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. The New Testament’s background, the first division of the Christian Bible, is called the Old Testament, which is based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible; together they are regarded as sacred scripture by Christians. The New Testament is a collection of Christian texts originally written in the Koine Greek language, at different times by various authors. While the Old Testament canon varies somewhat between different Christian denominations, the 27-book canon of the New Testament has been almost universally recognized within Christianity since at least Late Antiquity. Thus, in almost all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books. 4 canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John). The Acts of the Apostles. 7 general epistles, and. The Book of Revelation. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is found in a letter written by Athanasius, a 4th-century bishop of Alexandria, dated to 367 AD. [2] The 27-book New Testament was first formally canonized during the councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397) in North Africa. Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under Pope Damasus I gave the same list first. These councils also provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books. There is no scholarly consensus on the date of composition of the latest New Testament texts. Conservative scholars John A. Robinson, Dan Wallace, and William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. [4] Many other scholars, such as Bart D. Ehrman and Stephen L. Harris, date some New Testament texts much later than this;[5][6][7] Richard Pervo dated Luke-Acts to c. AD 115, [8] and David Trobisch places Acts in the mid-to-late second century, contemporaneous with the publication of the first New Testament canon. [9] The New Oxford Annotated Bible states, Scholars generally agree that the Gospels were written forty to sixty years after the death of Jesus. They are not eyewitness or contemporary accounts of Jesus’s life and teaching. This item is in the category “Books & Magazines\Antiquarian & Collectible”. The seller is “dalebooks” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Year Printed: 1858
  • Modified Item: Yes
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Topic: Christianity, Bibles
  • Binding: Leather
  • Region: North America
  • Origin: United States
  • Subject: Religion & Spirituality
  • Original/Facsimile: Original
  • Language: Choctaw
  • Signed: Yes
  • Place of Publication: New York
  • Special Attributes: Signed

RARE Native American Indian Choctaw New Testament Bible 1858 owned by Mormon

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Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure

Rare_Robert_Flaherty_Pencil_Signed_Native_American_Indian_Portrait_Photogravure_01_qih
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure

Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure
Overview : HAND PENCIL SIGNED AS SHOWN. NOT ANOTHER FOR SALE. NEEDS TO BE CLEANED OR BLEACHED. HEAVY TONING AND STAINS. MY PRICE IS BASED ON WHAT I PAID TO OWN IT. Condition : HEAVY STAINS, DISCOLORATION AND WEAR. Measurements : SHEET SIZE 13 BY 17 INCHES. NEW ITEMS FROM COLLECTORS ESTATES FRESH TO THE MARKET AND NEVER BEFORE OFFERED FOR SALE. This item is in the category “Art\Art Prints”. The seller is “samuelcollection” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Mexico, Germany, Brazil, France, Australia, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Sweden, Belgium, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Austria, Bahamas, New Zealand, Switzerland, Norway, Croatia, Republic of, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Barbados, Bermuda, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Martinique, Nicaragua, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay.
  • Size: Medium (up to 36in.)
  • Style: Traditional
  • Material: Heliogravure, Photogravure
  • Date of Creation: 1900-1949
  • Features: Signed
  • Subject: Portrait
  • Print Surface: Paper

Rare Robert Flaherty Pencil Signed Native American Indian Portrait Photogravure

VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE

VTG_Rare_Golden_NATIVE_AMERICAN_INDIAN_CHIEF_Johnson_Held_Western_BELT_BUCKLE_01_lyc
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE

VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE
RARE & BEAUTIFUL VINTAGE JOHNSON & HELD, USA, BRAND 100% HANDCRAFTED GOLDEN TONED NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF WESTERN STYLE BELT BUCKLE WITH TURQUOISE INLAY ACCENTS- This pre-owned buckle is in excellent condition. In fact, you have to look at the buckle very close-up to even notice any signs of wear. It will look fantastic on your belt. It’s a rare version of the American makers Indian chief buckle series that has the white mother of pearl or swirled enamel background. It is naturally aged, and that has produced a golden toned finish on the brass image of the chief. Measures 3 3/4″ x 3″ and fits belts up to 2 wide. Check out our many HUNDREDS of additional rare vintage western American & cowboy belt buckles. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Cultures & Ethnicities\Western Americana\Belt Buckles”. The seller is “bigskybuckles” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay, Russian Federation.
  • Handmade: Yes
  • Modified Item: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Culture: Western Americana
  • Provenance: Ownership History Not Available
  • Brand: Johnson & Held

VTG Rare Golden NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEF Johnson Held Western BELT BUCKLE

RARE WOW NAVAJO STERLING FRED HARVEY TURQUOISE SNAKE CUFF sale sale $$$ enjoy

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WOW PAWN NATIVE NAVAJO SILVER BRACELET /925. This amazing cu ff. Thi S CUFF IS READY TO WEAR. DEEP STAMPS FUN FUN FOR THE SNAKE LOVER. Enjoy ask questions please. ZUNI DESIGNS ARE HOT PROPERTY. Green Brown blue stone big. The item “RARE WOW NAVAJO STERLING FRED HARVEY TURQUOISE SNAKE CUFF sale sale $$$ enjoy” is in sale since Tuesday, November 23, 2021. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Ethnic, Regional & Tribal\Bracelets & Charms”. The seller is “texaskidstudio-8″ and is located in San Marcos, Texas. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Montserrat, Turks and caicos islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay, Russian federation.
  • Ethnic & Regional Style: Native American
  • Signed: Signed
  • Color: Blue
  • UNSIGNED: UNSIGNED
  • OLD PAWN: VINTAGE ANTIQUE NATIVE JEWELRY (BRACELETS)
  • Metal: Silver
  • Ethnic Origin: NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN
  • Main Stone: Turquoise
  • Vintage: FINE NATIVE SOUTHWESTERN JEWELRY
  • Brand: Unbranded
  • lot: No
  • Jewelry Type: Bracelets
  • Type: Bracelet
  • Style: Cuff
  • Featured Refinements: Old Pawn Bracelet
  • Tribal Affiliation: Navajo
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Country of Origin: USA
  • Chain Type: Snake

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RARE_WOW_NAVAJO_STERLING_FRED_HARVEY_TURQUOISE_SNAKE_CUFF_sale_sale_enjoy_01_cp
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WOW PAWN NATIVE NAVAJO SILVER BRACELET /925. This amazing cu ff. Thi S CUFF IS READY TO WEAR. DEEP STAMPS FUN FUN FOR THE SNAKE LOVER. Enjoy ask questions please. ZUNI DESIGNS ARE HOT PROPERTY. Green Brown blue stone big. The item “RARE WOW NAVAJO STERLING FRED HARVEY TURQUOISE SNAKE CUFF sale sale $$$ enjoy” is in sale since Sunday, November 21, 2021. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Ethnic, Regional & Tribal\Bracelets & Charms”. The seller is “texaskidstudio-8″ and is located in San Marcos, Texas. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Montserrat, Turks and caicos islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay, Russian federation.
  • Ethnic & Regional Style: Native American
  • Signed: Signed
  • Color: Blue
  • UNSIGNED: UNSIGNED
  • OLD PAWN: VINTAGE ANTIQUE NATIVE JEWELRY (BRACELETS)
  • Metal: Silver
  • Ethnic Origin: NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN
  • Main Stone: Turquoise
  • Vintage: FINE NATIVE SOUTHWESTERN JEWELRY
  • Brand: Unbranded
  • lot: No
  • Jewelry Type: Bracelets
  • Type: Bracelet
  • Style: Cuff
  • Featured Refinements: Old Pawn Bracelet
  • Tribal Affiliation: Navajo
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Country of Origin: USA
  • Chain Type: Snake

RARE WOW NAVAJO STERLING FRED HARVEY TURQUOISE SNAKE CUFF sale sale $$$ enjoy

Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed

Rare_Charles_Supplee_Hopi_Indian_14k_Solid_Gold_Royston_Turquoise_Ring_Signed_01_lyxu
Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed
Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed
Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed
Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed
Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed
Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed

Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed
RARE CHARLES SUPPLEE HOPI INDIAN 14K SOLID GOLD ROYSTON TURQUOISE RING SIGNED. DESCRIPTION: THIS IS A VERY RARE SIGNED VINTAGE CHARLES SUPLEE HOPI INDIAN HANDMADE SOLID 14K GOLD SHADOW BOX ROYSTON TURQUOISE STONE RING IN EXCELLENT CONDITION. RING IS STAMPED INSIDE WITH EARLY MAKERS MARK CS (CHARLES SUPLEE) 14K AND HANDMADE. HAS A BEAUTIFUL LARGE OVAL ORNATE HANDSTAMPED INDIAN DESIGN AROUND THE BOARDER OF A 8.6MM GORGEOUS TURQUOISE STONE IN A SHADOWBOX DESIGN SETTING. RING ALSO HAS A HANDSTAMPED INDIAN DESIGN AROUND THE OUTSIDE OF THE BAND. RINGIS IN EXCELLENT CONDITION PLEASE SEE ALL PHOTOS. MAKERS: STAMPED INSIDE WITH MAKERS MARK CS , 14K GOLD AND HANDMADE. METAL: SOLID 14K GOLD. STONE SIZE: CENTER TUQUOISE STONE MEASURES 8.6 MM. MEASUREMENT: RINGIS A SIZE 4 1/2 AND TOP OF RING MEASURES 18.1 MM LONG DOWN THE FINGER. CONDITION: VERY GOOD/ EXCELLENT. Get Supersized Images & Free Image Hosting. Create your brand with Auctiva’s. Attention Sellers – Get Templates Image Hosting, Scheduling at Auctiva. Track Page Views With. Auctiva’s FREE Counter. The item “RARE CHARLES SUPPLEE HOPI INDIAN 14K SOLID GOLD ROYSTON TURQUOISE RING SIGNED” is in sale since Thursday, September 3, 2020. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Ethnic, Regional & Tribal\Rings”. The seller is “neetstuf2″ and is located in Wayne, Pennsylvania. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Country of Origin: United States
  • Department: Women
  • Jewelry Type: Rings
  • Number of Gemstones: 1
  • Ethnic Origin: Indian
  • Type: Ring
  • Customized: No
  • Main Stone Color: Blue
  • Color: Blue
  • Vintage: Yes
  • Number of Diamonds: NONE
  • Signed: Yes
  • Brand: CHARLES SUPPLEE
  • Ring Size: 4 1/2
  • Ethnic & Regional Style: Native American
  • Main Stone Shape: Oval
  • Handmade: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Style: UNIQUE
  • Base Metal: Gold
  • Theme: Beauty
  • Metal Purity: 14k
  • Main Stone: Turquoise
  • Wholesale: No
  • Sizable: Yes
  • Main Stone Creation: Natural
  • Metal: Yellow Gold
  • Tribal Affiliation: Hopi

Rare Charles Supplee Hopi Indian 14k Solid Gold Royston Turquoise Ring Signed

Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun

Rare_Wow_Navajo_Sterling_Fred_Harvey_Turquoise_Snake_Cuff_Fun_Fun_01_gyp
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun

Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
WOW PAWN NATIVE NAVAJO SILVER BRACELET INGOT/925. This amazing cu ff. Thi S CUFF IS READY TO WEAR. DEEP STAMPS FUN FUN FOR THE SNAKE LOVER. Enjoy ask questions please. ZUNI DESIGNS ARE HOT PROPERTY. The item “RARE WOW NAVAJO STERLING FRED HARVEY TURQUOISE SNAKE CUFF FUN FUN” is in sale since Saturday, November 13, 2021. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Ethnic, Regional & Tribal\Bracelets & Charms”. The seller is “texaskidstudio-8″ and is located in San Marcos, Texas. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Montserrat, Turks and caicos islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay, Russian federation.
  • Ethnic & Regional Style: Native American
  • Signed: Signed
  • Color: Blue
  • UNSIGNED: UNSIGNED
  • OLD PAWN: VINTAGE ANTIQUE NATIVE JEWELRY (BRACELETS)
  • Metal: Silver
  • Ethnic Origin: NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN
  • Main Stone: Turquoise
  • Vintage: FINE NATIVE SOUTHWESTERN JEWELRY
  • Brand: Unbranded
  • lot: No
  • Jewelry Type: Bracelets
  • Type: Bracelet
  • Style: Cuff
  • Featured Refinements: Old Pawn Bracelet
  • Tribal Affiliation: Navajo
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Country of Origin: USA
  • Chain Type: Snake

Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun

Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun

Rare_Wow_Navajo_Sterling_Fred_Harvey_Turquoise_Snake_Cuff_Fun_Fun_01_gj
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun

Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun
WOW PAWN NATIVE NAVAJO SILVER BRACELET INGOT/925. This amazing cu ff. Thi S CUFF IS READY TO WEAR. DEEP STAMPS FUN FUN FOR THE SNAKE LOVER. Enjoy ask questions please. ZUNI DESIGNS ARE HOT PROPERTY. The item “RARE WOW NAVAJO STERLING FRED HARVEY TURQUOISE SNAKE CUFF FUN FUN” is in sale since Tuesday, September 21, 2021. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Ethnic, Regional & Tribal\Native American\Bracelets”. The seller is “texaskidstudio-8″ and is located in San Marcos, Texas. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Antigua and barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Montserrat, Turks and caicos islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay, Russian federation.
  • Ethnic & Regional Style: Native American
  • Signed: Signed
  • UNSIGNED: UNSIGNED
  • OLD PAWN: VINTAGE ANTIQUE NATIVE JEWELRY (BRACELETS)
  • Metal: Silver
  • Ethnic Origin: NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN
  • Main Stone: Turquoise
  • Brand: Unbranded
  • lot: No
  • Jewelry Type: Bracelets
  • Type: Bracelet
  • Style: Cuff
  • Featured Refinements: Old Pawn Bracelet
  • VINTAGE: FINE NATIVE SOUTHWESTERN JEWELRY
  • Tribal Affiliation: Navajo
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Country of Origin: USA

Rare Wow Navajo Sterling Fred Harvey Turquoise Snake Cuff Fun Fun